Vale of Glamorgan Replacement Local Development Plan 2021-2036 Preferred Strategy

Ended on the 14 February 2024
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3.1 The Vale of Glamorgan is Wales' most southerly Unitary Authority, lying west of Cardiff between the M4 and the Severn Estuary. It covers an area of 33,097 hectares (130 square miles) the majority of which, approximately 85% (28,132 hectares) is agricultural land.

3.2 Bordering the Severn Estuary, the Vale has 53 kilometres of coastline, of which 19 kilometres is designated as the 'Glamorgan Heritage Coast'. The neighbouring local authorities are Bridgend County Borough Council to the west, Cardiff Council to the east and Rhondda Cynon Taf County Borough Council to the north.

3.3 The Vale's population was approximately 131,900 as indicated by the 2021 Census. Barry, the largest town, is the administrative centre and is the main centre of population with a resident population of approximately 56,600 people in 2021. A further 45,300 people are distributed amongst the larger towns of Penarth, Llantwit Major, Dinas Powys and Cowbridge. The remaining population is dispersed throughout the Vale's smaller rural villages and hamlets.

Settlement Pattern

3.4 The settlement pattern of the Vale of Glamorgan has largely been shaped out of the area's industrial heritage and the Vale's prime agricultural landscape. The main settlements of Barry and Penarth are located on the coast and developed around the ports, serving the demand for Welsh coal, while settlements such as Cowbridge and Llantwit Major developed as market towns providing services for local agriculture. Away from the main centres, the Vale is characterised by a mix of urban settlements located primarily within the south eastern Vale, elsewhere the rural Vale consists of small villages and hamlets.

3.5 The Vale of Glamorgan Settlements Appraisal Review Background Paper categorises the Vale's settlements into four categories which best represent the role, character, and function of the settlements. These are:

Key Settlement: Barry

Service Centre Settlements: Cowbridge, Llantwit Major, Penarth

Primary Settlements: 
Dinas Powys, Rhoose, St. Athan, Llandough (Penarth), Sully, Wenvoe, Wick and Culverhouse Cross

Minor Rural Settlements:

Aberthaw (East)

Graig Penllyn




Peterston Super Ely






St Brides Major



St Nicholas


Ogmore by Sea


Fferm Goch



Hamlets and Smaller Rural Settlements:

Aberthaw (West)


St Brides Super Ely



St Donats

Castle Upon Alun


St Georges



St Hilary



St Lythans


Michaelston le Pit

St Mary Church



St Mary Hill



St Y Nyll




Gwern y Steeple

Ogmore Village

Tair Onen



The Downs



The Herberts


Penn Onn



Pentre Meyrick








Llandough (Cow)




St Andrews Major

Welsh St Donats

3.6 At the top of the hierarchy is the key settlement of Barry, which is the largest of the Vale's towns and an important hub for social and economic activity. Recognised as the administrative centre of the Vale, Barry is one of the most sustainable locations within which to focus major new development opportunities, with excellent rail connections to Cardiff (4 trains an hour) and Bridgend (1 train an hour but expected to increase to 2 as part of Metro improvements). Barry offers a range of strategic services and facilities including employment, community facilities and established retail areas offering a range of goods and facilities.

3.7 In recent years, the Barry Docks area has undergone considerable regeneration with the development of the mixed-use Waterfront scheme on brownfield land adjacent to the docks, and investment in Barry Island, which is a focal point for tourism.

3.8 While the settlements of Cowbridge, Penarth and Llantwit Major are different in character to each other in terms of their size and locations, they are considered to play similar strategic roles. As well as having significant resident populations, each offers a range of local employment opportunities, sustainable transport options, established retail centres and a wide range of cultural, educational and community services and facilities. For these reasons these settlements have been classed as Service Centre Settlements reflecting their role in providing a range of services that serve the daily needs of their residents and acting as important hubs for those living in nearby smaller settlements.

3.9 The primary settlements of Dinas Powys, Rhoose, St Athan, Llandough (Penarth), Sully, Wenvoe, Wick and Culverhouse Cross complement the role of the Service Centre Settlements in that they provide for the needs of residents and cater for the needs of the surrounding wider rural areas. They offer several key services and facilities, which are vital to their role as sustainable communities, as they reduce the need to travel to Barry or the Service Centre Settlements to address day-to-day needs.

3.10 The group of Minor Rural Settlements are dispersed throughout the Vale and contain a more limited but nonetheless important range of services and facilities that play a functional role in meeting some of the basic needs of residents within rural areas, reducing the need to travel.

3.11 The lowest tier of settlements consists of 54 hamlets and smaller rural settlements of the Vale. These are largely comprised of either a small group of dwellings or more sporadic/dispersed and loose knit groups of residential properties (often including isolated individual houses or farmhouses and barn conversions). These places typically have smaller resident populations, generally below 100 residents. Nonetheless, the settlements are important contributors to rural life within the Vale of Glamorgan and the character of the countryside outside of the main settlements.

Population and Demography

3.12 Between the last two censuses (2011 and 2021) the population of the Vale of Glamorgan increased by 4.4% from around 126,300 in 2011 to around 131,900 in 2021, which was greater than the percentage change across Wales as a whole over the same period (1.4%).

3.13 The largest growth in population (2001–2020) has been in the 65–79 age group with an overall increase of almost 50% (Figure 6). The 80+ age group has also seen substantial growth, increasing by 38% over the historical period. The size of the working age population (15–64) has increased by 10%, whilst the population aged 0–4 has decreased by 2%. The population ageing seen in the Vale of Glamorgan is an inevitable feature of population change across the UK, as the larger birth cohorts of the post-war period move into the retirement ages and improvements in healthcare mean people are living longer.

Figure 6	Graph showing Population Growth by Age Group with the 65-79 age group experiencing the biggest increase between 2001-2020

Figure 6: Population Growth by Age Group
Source: ONS

3.14 Migration data for the Vale of Glamorgan indicates that the largest population exchange (inward and outward migration) has occurred between the Vale and neighbouring Cardiff. This is illustrated in Figure 7, which indicates that there has been a steady exchange of people moving between Cardiff and the Vale, with the Vale experiencing a net increase in its population (an average of 717 per year) due to migration from other areas, including a significant migration flow from Cardiff. More recently, for the period 2016-2021 net migration into the Vale rose to 992 persons annually (Figure 7), a key contributing factor for the above Wales average population increase identified within the 2021 census.

Graph showing the annual migration flows between Cardiff and the Vale

Figure 7: Annual Migration Flow Between Cardiff and Vale of Glamorgan
Source: Edge Analytics Demographic Report

3.15 The population exchange between the Vale and Cardiff has also influenced the demographic profile of both authorities. Figures 8 and 9 highlight that since 2001 there has been a net inflow into the Vale across all age groups, except for the 15–19-year-old cohort, as family groups in particular have moved into the Vale from places such as Cardiff. Conversely, there has been a large outflow associated with young people leaving the area to study elsewhere in the UK. This is also reflected in the inward flow of 15–19-year-olds into Cardiff.

Average net internal migration by age group in the Vale between 2001/02 and 2019/20

Figure 8: Vale of Glamorgan Internal Net Migration- Age Profile
Source: ONS

Average net internal migration by age group in Cardiff between 2001/02 and 2019/20

Figure 9: Cardiff Internal Net Migration- Age Profile
Source: ONS

Housing Market and Housing Need

3.16 The long-term migration trend of people moving between Cardiff and the Vale suggests that the Vale and Cardiff to some degree share a larger than local housing market, and to a lesser extent this is also shared with neighbouring Bridgend. These factors highlight the importance for collaboration between the Vale and its neighbours when considering strategic matters such as housing growth.

3.17 The Vale also has a high housing cost with average house prices in April 2023 on average 9.7 times the average workplace earnings compared to the regional average of 7.1[2]. In terms of the Vale, evidence on entry level house prices indicate that the Vale contains 4 distinct housing market areas, Barry, Penarth, Coastal and Rural.

3.18 Consequently, the Vale has a significant need for affordable homes, with affordable housing need steadily increasing over the past 10 years, despite the fact that the Vale is one of highest performing authorities in Wales in terms of affordable housing delivery. The Council's 2021 Local Housing Market Assessment (LHMA) identifies a need for 1,205 affordable homes per annum over the 5-year period 2021-2026 and the initial findings of the draft LHMA update (2023) indicates a need of 1,121 affordable homes per annum for the next 5 years, and 204 affordable homes per annum for the following 10 years. Both assessments highlight that the areas in the Vale with the greatest need are Barry and Penarth, however there is a general need for a range of types and sizes of affordable housing across the Vale.

3.19 It is anticipated that affordable housing need will continue to be a major issue for the RLDP over the lifetime of the plan.

Gypsy and Travellers

3.20 There are currently no public owned Gypsy and Traveller sites within the Vale, but there are 3 private sites with permanent planning permission (5 pitches); 1 tolerated site (17 pitches) and 2 unauthorised developments (4 pitches). The Council has a duty to ensure that the existing and future accommodation needs of the Gypsy and Traveller community is met through the provision of sufficient land in the RLDP for Gypsy and Traveller sites. The latest Gypsy and Traveller Accommodation Assessment (GTAA) identifies a need for 11 additional pitches to be delivered over the plan period (9 pitches to 2026, and a further 2 pitches by 2036).

Health and Well-being

3.21 The Vale of Glamorgan is generally regarded as an affluent and attractive area relative to other authorities within the region. However, the Vale exhibits considerable socio-economic diversity, with parts of the rural Vale containing some of the most affluent communities in Wales and other communities falling within the highest 10% of most deprived areas in Wales.

3.22 The Welsh Indices of Multiple Deprivation (WIMD) show that most deprived neighbourhoods in the Vale have persistently been in Barry, primarily within the eastern wards. The most recent WIMD data (2019) identified 3 areas to be within the top 10% most deprived places in Wales (Gibbonsdown 2, Buttrills 2, and Court 3), with other areas in Barry also falling within the top 20%. In addition, pockets of high deprivation are also present in areas of Penarth, St Athan and Llantwit Major.

3.23 These disparities are reflected in the health and well-being of our communities. When compared to other parts of Wales, Vale residents generally exhibit good health and have one of the highest average life expectancies at birth. However, in areas of highest deprivation life expectancy for people is considerably lower, where a higher proportion of people are affected by long term health conditions.

3.24 Recognition of these inequalities, which reflect differing community needs at a neighbourhood and locality level within the Vale of Glamorgan, will necessitate bespoke approaches that go beyond the remit of the RLDP, however the plan can assist in addressing these issues through enhancing access to employment, improving open spaces and active travel routes and supporting the provision of affordable housing and regeneration.

3.25 Access to health and social care services is a more challenging issue for some parts of the Vale particularly given the ageing population, and the rural nature of the Vale aligned with poor public transport. In preparing the RLDP, the Council has worked closely with the Cardiff and Vale Local Health Board to identify future health and well-being issues such as the need to identify locations for new health services as changes to the delivery of health services with the community.


3.26 The area has good schools and high levels of education attainment with 37.3% of the adult population (aged 16-64) holding an NVQ level 4 or higher. There are 46 infant/junior/primary schools, 7 secondary schools and Barry and Vale College with campuses located in Barry and Cardiff Airport Enterprise Zone. Whilst several new schools in Vale have been provided under the authority's 21st Century Schools programme, and several others are planned to be expanded during the plan period, in some areas schools are at or near capacity. In preparing the RLDP, the Council will consider educational needs arising from planned growth, especially within those areas where capacity is limited.


3.27 The area benefits from good road and rail links that provide direct connectivity to the wider region. The M4 motorway located to the north of the Vale providing a key transport link that gives access to the South East Wales region and beyond. The Vale of Glamorgan railway line runs east to west through the authority serving the Vale's largest settlements of Penarth and Cogan, Dinas Powys, Barry, Llantwit Major and Rhoose, linking the authority with Cardiff and Bridgend and providing connections to the main south Wales railway line. The main towns also have reasonable access to local bus services, but villages that are located away from key bus corridors are not as well served.

3.28 Cardiff Airport is located near the coast to the west of Barry. Recognised as an important gateway for business and tourism in south Wales, the airport plays a significant role in supporting the local economy and connecting South Wales to destinations across the UK and the world. Since the outbreak of the Coronavirus pandemic in 2020, the number of passengers using Cardiff Airport have fallen sharply. In 2022, passenger numbers stood at 860,000 (arrivals and departures), which is below the pre-pandemic levels of 1.65 million in 2019. The benefits of proximity to the airport offers significant opportunities and should be capitalised on through the plan.

3.29 The nature of the Vale's settlement patterns means that residents within the main towns and settlements are better able to access a range of facilities by walking, cycling and public transport, and the Council continue to improve active travel network within and between settlements. However, there is relatively limited public transport availability in the more remote rural areas and between its main towns, which limits accessibility to facilities and services, particularly for disadvantaged groups.

3.30 The Vale of Glamorgan is within the South East Wales Metro Zone and the Council continue to seek to improve public transport connectivity to improve transport infrastructure, including new park and ride facilities, to facilitate greater accessibility for Vale residents and reduce peak hour congestion, both on rail and road network.

3.31 The Port of Barry is a key facility for the region's chemical industry, handling liquid bulks for major companies and handles around 300,000 tonnes of cargo, contributing over £340 million to the economy every year and is an important source of local employment.

3.32 Digital connectivity will continue to play an important role in enabling agile working and facilitating economic growth. Data from WIMD 2019 provides an insight into the quality of broadband availability across the Vale of Glamorgan. The WIMD Environment Domain includes a measure of the unavailability of broadband at speeds of 30 megabits per second (mbs), this is the typical speeds provided by Fibre to Cabinet connections. There is a disparity in download speeds between more rural and urban areas of the Vale of Glamorgan. LSOAs in towns such as Barry, Penarth and Cowbridge show high availability of broadband at 30mbs and LSOAs in more rural areas show poorer availability. The RLDP will promote and support the delivery of digital and communications infrastructure to meet the needs of users and providers for the plan period.

Economy & Employment

Place of Work and Commuting

3.33 The geography of economic activity within the authority is increasingly varied with the Vale people often living, working and undertake leisure activities within and outside of the authority. Since the Covid pandemic, the number of people working from home has increased significantly, alongside the proportion of the workforce who participate in flexible work patterns. The latest 2021 Census data indicates that 34% of the workforce work from home either part or full time. However, this varies across the Vale of Glamorgan, with highest occurrences of homeworking located within the rural Vale, and lowest within Barry[3].

3.34 Whilst the distance residents typically commute is relatively short, with most Vale residents (33.8%) travelling less than 10km to their place of work, 16% commute up to 30km and 3.5% more than 30km, levels of outward commuting remain high (Figure 10). The greatest number of residents who travel outside of the Vale for work purposes travel to Cardiff followed by Bridgend and Rhondda Cynon Taf, whilst a smaller proportion commute into the Vale from these neighbouring authorities. Consequently, the main highway experiences congestion at peak periods.

Commuting flows by origin and destination between Cardiff, Rhondda Cynon Taf, Bridgend, Caerphilly and Newport.

Figure 10: Commuting Flows: Origins and Destinations
Source: ONS 2011

Employment Structure

3.35 The proportion of the Vale's working age population (16-64 years old) in 2021 was 60.3% slightly below both regional and national average (62% and 61.2% respectively).

3.36 Over the past 5 years, the number of jobs within the Vale of Glamorgan has generally remained constant at over 41,000, whilst the job profile of people employed within the sector has changed, with the greatest change occurring within the professional, scientific and technical sectors, and business and support services, reflecting the wider trend in the expansion of office-based employment.

3.37 The health sector accounts for the largest number of employees within the Vale of Glamorgan, 8,000 or 19.5% of the total number in employment. Manufacturing was the next largest industry in the Vale of Glamorgan, employing 3,500 or 8.5 percent of the workforce. Private office sectors accounted for a combined total of 15.4 percent, or 6,300 employees in the Vale, compared with 16.8 percent for Wales. Due to the high prevalence of residents employed in professional sectors, the Vale can be described as having a skilled workforce, which is reflected in average weekly pay in the Vale being £61 more than that of average workplace weekly pay, equivalent to 10% more[4].

Graph showing the types of occupations in the Vale with the highest number of people in professional occupations

Figure 11: Employment by Occupation, January 2021 - December 2021
Source: Annual Population Survey, 2022


3.38 The Vale has a range of attractions for tourists that utilise the natural environment to improve the area's economic well-being. This includes the Glamorgan Heritage Coast, the Wales Coast Path and well-established seaside resorts; attractive countryside and country parks; unique historic features; several outdoor pursuit activities; and a well-established network of walking routes.

3.39 Barry Island seafront and Whitmore Bay are recognised as one of the main tourist destinations within the Vale of Glamorgan. The resort is well known throughout the South Wales Valleys, South West England and the West Midlands from which historically a high proportion of visitors were drawn. The resort's main attractions include the beach, Barry Island Pleasure Park, other smaller attractions and numerous amusements, cafes and bars. Despite having to face major market changes and ever increasing demands the area still attracts an estimated 424,000 visitors with and economic value of £17 million (STEAM 2019).

3.40 The economic contribution of the tourism sector has been growing year on year in the Vale of Glamorgan; however, in 2020 data suggests the economic impact of the sector had fallen by 45.1% as a result of the Covid pandemic and associated travel restrictions which coincided with a 45.3% fall in the number of full-time equivalent jobs employed in the sector. STEAM data shows that the number of day visitors dropped to 1.89 million in 2020, but these numbers recovered to 4.23 million by 2021. It is considered that as the Vale recovers from the pandemic, trends will increase to meet and exceed growth seen pre-pandemic.


3.41 The retail sector in the Vale of Glamorgan is made up of a range of convenience and comparison stores centred principally in the settlements of Barry, Penarth, Llantwit Major and Cowbridge and at the out of centre retail park at Culverhouse Cross. Health checks on the main town centres undertaken as part of the Retail and Commercial Leisure Study (2023) indicated that Penarth, Cowbridge and Llantwit Major were performing well, with below average levels of vacant units within the district centres, whereas the town centre of Holton Road in Barry and the District Centre of High Street had higher than average vacant units. There is a need to ensure that future policies allow for flexibility for a greater range of uses that would be acceptable within a town centre, in line with the town centre first principle.

3.42 The retail study identified that the Vale of Glamorgan is retaining a healthy proportion of spend on convenience goods, with 86.1% (£273.7m) of all convenience spending (everyday essential items such as food) by Vale residents being spent in retail units within the Vale. However, much of this spend is taking place within out of centre stores rather than town centres. For comparison shopping (retail items not bought or a frequent basis), the Vale retains just over half (50.3%) of all comparison spend (£294.5m), with the leakage out of the area being primarily directed towards Cardiff.

3.43 The study identified that there is a convenience floorspace capacity of between 4,282 sq m and 5,862 sq m (depending on the type of operator), which is due to the trading of existing stores above benchmark levels. In qualitative terms, Barry Holton Road, Penarth and Llantwit Major town centres have been identified as having a need for a medium to large supermarket.

Natural Environment

3.44 The Vale is a distinctive, gentle lowland landscape, largely comprising a rolling limestone plateau, which is dissected by several rivers including the Ely, Thaw and Waycock. A variety of rural land uses characterise the area, reinforced by thick hedgerows, frequent small woodlands and trees, which create a sense of enclosure. The landscape terminates abruptly at the Heritage Coast with vertical cliffs. Dispersed between the cliffs there are several sandy and shingle beaches along coastline.

3.45 Many of the Vale's landscapes are identified through designation for their high quality. One Landscape of Outstanding and Special interest exists wholly within the Vale and another partially. There are 6 Special Landscape Areas, and the western coast of the Vale is recognised for its national importance as the Glamorgan Heritage Coast.

3.46 The mixture of coast and countryside landscapes results in a great variety of habitats, some of which are quite rare such as the mesotrophic lake, Pysgodlyn Mawr, at Hensol and the saline lagoon at Aberthaw. This diversity also means that the Vale's coast and countryside hold a rich diversity of flora and fauna. Rare species are present, including the High Brown Fritillary butterfly, the Green Sandpiper, Corn Buttercup, the True Service Tree, the Fairy Shrimp and the Shrill Carder Bee. Whilst the extent of many of the habitats is relatively small, some are more extensive such as heathland, coastal grasslands and woodlands, and the length of ancient and species rich hedgerows and arable field margins are significant.

3.47 Like the Vale's landscapes, in recognition of the rich habitats of the Vale, many of its areas are designated for their biodiversity value by international, national and local designations making it one of the richest areas of biodiversity and natural beauty in South Wales. There are 2 sites in the Vale designated as European sites under the Habitats Directive: the Severn Estuary, which is identified as a RAMSAR site, a Special Area of Conservation, and a Special Protection Area; and Dunraven Bay, which is identified as a Special Area of Conservation. The Kenfig Special Area of Conservation also abuts the Vale to the East. In addition to these there are a range of national and local designations, for example: 27 Sites of Special Scientific Interest; over 300 Sites of Importance for Nature Conservation; 12 Regionally Important Geological and Geomorphological Sites, and 3 Local Nature Reserves.

3.48 In responding to the declared climate and nature emergencies, it will be important to safeguard designated areas and where possible take advantage of opportunities to create new ecological networks.

3.49 The adopted LDP identifies green wedges which seek to prevent the coalescence of settlements and retain openness. A regional methodology for the identification of green wedges is currently being prepared and it is anticipated that this methodology will be used to inform any green wedge designations within the Deposit RLDP. Consideration will also be given to the existing Special Landscape Area designations to ensure that these remain appropriate.

Language, Culture, Heritage, and Diversity

3.50 The Welsh language is part of the social and cultural fabric of Wales and the Welsh Government is committed to ensuring that the Welsh language is supported and encouraged throughout Wales. The 2021 Census identified that 11.5% of the population aged 3 or older could speak Welsh, representing an increase when compared with the 2011 Census, where only 10.8% of people aged 3 or older could speak Welsh. This is contrary to the trend experienced across Wales overall, where the number of Welsh speakers has decreased from 19% in 2011 to 17.8% in 2021.

3.51 The percentage of people recording that they are from a non-White ethnic group has increased in the 2021 Census compared to the 2011 Census, with 5.4% identifying as belonging to an ethnic group other than White, compared to 4.4% in 2011. The 2021 Census identified that 2.1% of the population identified their ethnicity as 'Asian, Asian British or Asian Welsh', 0.5% identified as 'Black, Black British, Black Welsh, Caribbean or African', 2.3% identified as 'Mixed or Multiple ethnic groups' and 0.5% identified as 'other ethnic group.'

3.52 In terms of built heritage, the Vale of Glamorgan has approximately 740 listed buildings, over 100 Scheduled Ancient Monuments, 39 Conservation Areas, 18 areas included in the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens and 2 areas on the Register of Landscapes of Historic interest in Wales.

3.53 It is also vital for the plan to ensure that future housing makes provision for the specific accommodation needs of disabled people through providing opportunities for independent living proposals such as supported living schemes and by ensuring that specialist housing forms part of a wider housing mix on allocated sites identified. It will also be important for new developments to be suitably located and enable easy access to shops and facilities of town and local centres.

Climate Change and Flood Risk

3.54 In 2019, the Vale of Glamorgan accounted for approximately 5% of Wales' carbon emissions, with 8.4 tonnes of CO2 per capita. Emissions are reducing over time, however, they will have to reduce significantly during the plan period to achieve net zero targets. The sectors that emit the most carbon are industry (57%), transport (21%) and domestic (17%). 53% of the Vale's housing stock have an EPC rating of D or worse. 38% of the Vale's electricity demand is met by local renewable energy generation, with ground-mounted solar PV (84MW) and biomass (45MW) contributing to this.

3.55 As a coastal authority climate change will have a dramatic impact on the Vale's coastline and the communities within coastal areas due to sea level rise and storms leading to increased exposure of the coast to flooding and coastal erosion. Also, areas of the Vale are within proximity to existing areas of flood risk, particularly areas neighbouring Barry, Dinas Powys and Penarth. Natural Resources Wales Communities at Risk Register estimate that there are approximately 5,000 residential properties in the Vale currently at some level of flood risk[5]. General climate change projections show an increased likelihood of more frequent and intense rainfall. It is expected that severe events such as the 2020 storms will become more common with increased severity and frequency of flooding of homes, communities, and businesses. At the same time, coastal flooding is a growing threat due to accelerating mean sea-level rise and increases in storminess and wave heights. These climate change associated impacts will increase the number of properties, infrastructure, and key services at risk of flooding from all sources.


Section 3 of the Preferred Strategy sets out the key characteristics of the Vale of Glamorgan. Do you agree that the key characteristics accurately portray the Vale of Glamorgan?

[2] Hometrack market intelligence

[4] ONS, "Earnings and hours worked, place of work by local authority: ASHE Tables 7 and 8", 2021, provisional. Mean gross pay for a full-time employee, Vale of Glamorgan: place of work (£607.80); place of residence (£669.20).

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